The Five Skills

Keep these five skills as a primary focus when managing the five behaviors and three duties in our Just Culture model.

Values & Expectations

They should be reasonable and doable. Knowing employees will make mistakes and systems will fail.

System Design

Strengthening through employee’s choices, while designing to catch and recover human errors and mechanical failures.

Behavioral Choices

Don’t punish unintended mistakes. Coach employees away from taking unidentified or unintentional risks. Punish the rare choices that are knowing, purposed and reckless towards harm.

Learning Systems

Learn from mistakes. Capture valuable data. Make employees feel safe to report openly about event and performance observations. Us it to improve systems, policies and procedures.

Accountability & Justice

Treat every individual and event with consistency and fairness. Work together and respond in an unbiased and fair manner regardless of how severe the occurrence was.


Human Error

To Accept the human error is to acknowlwdge it for what it is. An unintended action that happened to the actor and the organization

At-Risk Behavior

We need to coach people out of the behavioral choice that increases risk where risk is not recognized or is mistakenly believed to be justified


Reckless Behavior

Sanction may be required to manage this behavioral choice to consciously disregard a substantial and unjustifiable risk



When an employee chooses a behavior still knowing that harm is practically certain to occur may require disciplinary action


Leaders should consider using disciplinary sanction when employees choose a conscious objective to cause harm

The Five Behaviors

Manage these five employee behavioral choices to improve workplace justice.

The Three Duties

Behavioral choices are measured for accountability within three types of duties.

Duty to Avoid Causing Unjustifiable Risk or Harm

Did an employee put an organizational interest or value in harm’s way?

Duty to Follow a Procedural Rule

Did the employee breach a duty to follow a procedural rule?

Duty to Produce Outcomes

Did the employee breach a duty to produce an outcome?

The Just Culture Algorithm version 4.0

The Just Culture Algorithm™

For leaders trained in the five skills, five behaviors and three duties model, the Just Culture Algorithm™ is here to ensure consistency when managing employee behaviors and organizational outcomes.

The 10 Attributes of our Model

Provided is the framework according to the father of the modern Just Culture model, David Marx.

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